Lidiya Ivanova

| masseur | yoga instructor |

Yoga (Sanskrit: योग yoga About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is a generic term for the physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India with a view to attain a state of permanent peace.[1][2] Yoga is a Sanskrit word which means “union” and is interpreted as “union with the divine”.[3] One of the most detailed and thorough expositions on the subject is the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, which defines yoga as “the stilling of the changing states of the mind”[1] (Sanskrit: योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:). Yoga is also interpreted as the yoke that connects beings to the machine of existence.[4]

Various traditions of yoga are found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[5][6][7][6] In Hinduism, yoga is one of the six āstika (“orthodox”) schools of Hindu philosophy.[8]

Post-classical traditions consider Hiranyagarbha as the originator of yoga.[9][10] Pre–philosophical speculations and diverse ascetic practices of first millennium BCE were systematized into a formal philosophy in early centuries CE by the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.[11] By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra.[12][13] It along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word yoga today. Vajrayana Buddhism, founded by the Indian Mahasiddhas,[14] has a parallel series of asanas and pranayamas, such as caṇḍālī[15] and yantra yoga.[16]

Hindu monks, beginning with Swami Vivekananda, brought yoga to the West in the late 19th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. This form of yoga is often called Hatha yoga. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma and heart patients.[17][18][19][20] In a national survey, long-term yoga practitioners in the United States reported musculo–skeletal and mental health improvements.[21]